'Fading puppies' is not a diagnosis
Puppies need 3 things to survive after whelping:
- Energy (sugar)
If a puppy gets chilled it will die. If a puppy becomes hypoglycemic it will die. If a puppy becomes
dehydrated it will die. Those are the parameters of fading puppies.
Puppies may die due to developmental problems in the uterus such as a malformed heart or other
anomalies. These puppies we cannot help. We may be able to keep them going for a few days, but they will
Puppies may die due to infections. Herpes virus is one such infection. We prevent this with proper
management of the bitch, the kennel and our show, training and social activities. Unbilical cord infection
leading to septicemia is another source of infection for puppies. Proper treatment of the cord at birth,
coupled with good sanitation -- keeping the bitch, the box and the puppies scrupulously clean -- will
prevent this problem.
The greatest infectious risk to the puppies comes from an E. coli
infection in the vagina of the bitch.
We're assuming that an E. coli infection in the uterus will result in no
puppies. However, if E. coli is found
with a high vaginal culture, the bitch must be treated before breeding,
and again just before whelping even
if the infection is only in the vagina. In addition, puppies born to a
bitch with a positive E. coli culture must be treated for 5 days after
they are born
with cephalexin pediatric suspension beginning within a couple of hours
of birth. Puppies not treated in
this way will often begin to die from about two to four days after
birth. If antibiotics are not begun until
after puppies begin to die, typically half to all of the litter will die
before the drug has a chance to become
effective in the remaining puppies.
Puppies must get their colostrum from the bitch within their first 12 hours of life. If necessary, colostrum
should be expressed from the bitch's breasts and fed by dropper to each puppy to ensure this. A puppy
cannot get colostrum from another bitch with an older litter. It is only produced by the dam for a short time
after she whelps, and it can only be passed through the puppies intestinal mucosa in the active form for the
first few hours of life. If a puppy doesn't get colostrum, it will be much more susceptible to infections.
We've observed several instances of bitches that
whelp part of a litter naturally, but require a C-section to
get the last puppies out. If puppies from these litters develop
infections such as neonatal ophthalmia or
puppy strangles, it will be the puppies delivered by section, that don't
have as good a chance to obtain colostrum, that develop the
infections. There are breeds which are thought to have poor immunity
based on puppy infection data. One such is the Norwich Terrier.
We feel strongly that this is due to the fact that nearly all of some
lines are delivered by C-section, and that
we can, in fact, reverse this tendency by expressing colostrum and
feeding it to the puppies by dropper, or
by using colostrum we have frozen from other bitches to provide some
immunity to the puppies.
Preventing and treating 'fading puppies'
Fading puppy is not a diagnosis, it is a description.
After we exclude the puppies discussed above,
which are malformed or infected, we are left with the puppies which are
dehydrated, hypoglycemic, or chilled. These are the 'faders'.
It's often said that the 'mother knows best' when a bitch rejects a
puppy - as though she has x-ray eyes and can spot a malformed heart or
other defect. The fact is the bitch can't tell the difference between a
malformed puppy and one that is chilled, dehydrated or hypoglycemic.
She only knows that it
Every puppy is a Best In Show puppy. This is the premise we work on in this practice. Until the
puppies are old enough to be evaluated, we assume any one of them may turn out to be the pick of the litter.
There are plenty of occasions where the runt of the litter turns out to be a Best In Show winner later in life.
Knowing this, we would like to preserve all the puppies we can to grow up and realize their potential.
What a fading puppy needs is fairly simple - first determine if
something else, such as an E. coli infection, needs
addressing - this particular information is best obtained by culturing
the bitch before breeding. Then, provide the heat, calories and fluids
to support the puppy for first 2 to 4 days of its life.
Remove the fading puppy from the whelping box and put it into a small box with a heating pad. Provide
different amounts of padding over the heating pad at different parts of the box so the puppy may find the
amount of heat most comfortable for it. Partially cover the box with a towel. We must do this because the bitch will allow the puppy to get chilled when it is not as vigorous as the rest of the litter.
To provide the water and sugar needed, we inject sub-cutaneous fluids
under the skin on the top of the neck of the puppy. You should do this
every 2 hours while the puppy is in the box. You must go over this
with your veterinarian so that you can be instructed on how to do this
safely. However, that being said, this is
the most totally effective thing you can do for this puppy and you will save nearly all of your fading
puppies with this technique. The fluid is dextrose in saline. This
means that in addition to preventing
dehydration, it will provide energy - the dextrose part is sugar. With
this method, you can satisfy any fluid requirements in a dehydrated
puppy and you can leave a repository of fluid for the puppy to draw on
for the next two hours. A few other things such as stimulation to
urinate and defecate,
and you've got it managed. After about 48 hours in the box, nearly all
the puppies you undertake this with
will be strong enough to rejoin the litter full time.
Every couple of hours, you should place a drop of Karo syrup
on the tongue of the puppy. About 5
minutes later, place the puppy on the bitches nipple to nurse. Find a
good nipple, make sure there is milk
there, and that other puppies aren't going to get in the way - it might
be necessary to put the rest of the
puppies in a box while this puppy nurses. If you are using oxytocin,
put the fading or slow gaining puppies on the bitch about 15 minutes
after the oxytocin shot, while leaving the other puppies aside for as
long as the weaker ones will nurse.
Do not tube the puppy. A full discussion of the reasons why we don't want puppies tubed is found in our article on
feeding newborn puppies.